The simplest solution we could muster is trying again: if a conference with QoS information appears to have insufficient bandwidth, iChat AV could omit the QoS information and try again, to see if that confuses a router a bit less. Safari Mac OS X According to other documentation, Mac OS X Both are front-ends to the private Disk Management framework that contains the code for verifying and repairing HFS Plus volume structures and privileges. The framework—and therefore both Disk Utility and command-line utilities like the fsck disk-repair tool—see a major upgrade in Mac OS X The Mac OS always tries to allocate files in consecutive chunks, so it tracks file segments by extents, identifying each one by its starting block number and the count of the number of blocks in the extent.
An unfragmented file, no matter how large, has only one extent because it resides on disk in consecutive blocks. A 12KB file fragmented into three 4KB allocation blocks on disk has three extents, each one block long.
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Because both HFS and HFS Plus were designed to prevent fragmentation, tracking files by extents is more efficient than tracking each block allocated to a file. How can extents overlap?
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Disk corruption often starts with errors in block allocation. Whether by programming error or power outage, corruption begins when the file system uses some blocks on the disk but fails to mark those blocks as used in the allocation file or, under the older HFS format, the volume bitmap.
Suppose that your Safari bookmarks file overlaps a picture in your iPhoto library. If the picture was written last, Safari might crash on launch, unable to parse what it thinks should be an HTML file full of bookmarks that instead has some chunk of binary JPEG data in it. Fortunately, any decent disk utility rebuilds the allocation file from scratch as part of examining a volume, looking at every extent and making sure that every block is used once and only once.
Finding the problem is easier than fixing it. The sampling rate and bit depth are described as the Format in Core Audio, and each Stream within a Core Audio Device can theoretically have a different Format. So when writing a Core Audio driver, developers split the different banks of inputs and outputs into different Streams within the single device so that each Stream can contain a different number of channels with a different Format.
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Underneath the pop-up menu where you select a Stream are two pop-up menus to configure the sampling rate and bit depth for that Stream; however, despite the notional ability for different Streams to have different Formats, changing the format for one Stream will change other Streams to the same Format in most current Core Audio drivers. Below the Stream parameters in the System Settings is a list of the total input or output channels available with the device, and you'll notice in the screenshot overleaf that the channels that belong to the currently selected Stream are highlighted with a blue background.
Depending on the functionality offered by the Core Audio driver, it's possible to change the gain of channels, mute and unmute channels, as well as setting the through option to automatically pass input channels to the corresponding output channels on the audio hardware. These various options are greyed out when unsupported. Part of what makes it easy for Aggregate devices to be supported in Core Audio is the ability for a single Device to have multiple Streams.
For example, if you have two audio Devices each with single input and output Streams, the Aggregate Device will be presented as a single device with two Streams for both input and output: one for each Device. If you create an Aggregate Device with your Mac's built-in audio hardware and a MOTU , for example, you'll end up with a device consisting of six Streams for both input and output. The only thing to bear in mind is that not all Core Audio Drivers name Streams appropriately, notably those that only contain single streams: in these cases you end up with unhelpful names such as 'Stream n', where n is the number of the Stream in that Device.
So far it seems that Tiger has broken fewer music and audio applications and drivers than previous releases; many third-party developers were ready at the release of Tiger to supply the necessary patches and driver updates. Generally speaking, Core MIDI drivers seem unaffected by the move to Tiger, but here's a brief rundown on the current state of Tiger compatibility from various manufacturers at the time of writing mid-May As one would expect or at least hope , Logic v7.
On the hardware side, there has been no mention of driver updates or incompatibilities for Emagic's previous interfaces, but using an MT4 MIDI interface with a laptop running Tiger didn't seem to be a problem. Users of Peak 4. On the plus side, I did successfully install the At the time of writing, M-Audio were verifying compatibility of the company's MIDI and audio devices with Tiger, saying that Tiger-compatible drivers would, where necessary, be available shortly. MOTU's current v1.
The only incompatibility with this version is when running with Logic 7. Audiodesk users can download a Tiger-compatible v2. The company advise that users of Final Scratch v1. A small update is also required for users wishing to perform a clean install of Komplete 2 on Tiger rather than those upgrading to Tiger on a machine that already has Komplete 2 installed and fixes for Audio Units validation errors are apparently on the way for Battery 2 users and those with products based on Kontakt Player, such as Garritan Personal Orchestra.
Sibelius claim that all of the company's products have been tested with Tiger and that no serious compatibility problems have been found, with the exception of Sibelius Starclass, which apparently reports problems playing sounds with Quicktime when Adobe's Acrobat Reader v7 is installed. The solution is to remove version 7 and download and install the older version 6 from www. While Steinberg have yet to comment on testing with the final versions of Tiger, they've indicated in their support forum that Cubase, Nuendo and other products have been tested with pre-release versions of Tiger and seem to be fine.
Products that showed problems with the pre-release version of Tiger are Halion Player, the Nuendo Dolby Digital Encoder and the driver for the MI4 audio hardware that's part of the Cubase System 4 bundle. Full compatibility information will be available from Steinberg's web site in due course, and the company has also indicated that future Cubase and Nuendo releases will support Quartz 2D to improve graphics performance, which should offer a significant acceleration to the user interface.
Panther introduced a way to configure which outputs on your audio devices are assigned to which speakers in audio applications with a single stereo or multi-channel audio output.
This is the Configure Speakers sheet, which is opened from the Configure Speakers button for the currently selected audio device in the 'Properties For' pop-up menu. While this doesn't have too many uses in programs like Logic that deal with specific input and output audio channels on your hardware, it is useful to know about, since musicians and audio engineers are the ones most likely to need to manage multi-channel audio devices on a Mac.
One simple example where Configure Speakers can be useful is with an application like iTunes. Say you have an audio device with eight outputs: by default, iTunes will always play out of the first two outputs, but what if you want to hear to monitor via outputs seven and eight instead?
The Configure Speakers sheet enables you to specify what outputs on your Audio Device are used by applications that output audio to Mac OS X's stereo or multi-channel speaker arrangement. Notice how multiple Streams can be selected in the upper part of the sheet if the Audio Device has multiple Streams, as you can see here for an Aggregate Device.
In the Configure Speakers sheet, if you're using a device with multiple Streams, you enable the Stream with the outputs you want to assign in the upper part of the sheet — in this example, you need to enable the Stream that encompasses outputs seven and eight on your audio device.
Next, in the lower part of the sheet, you'll see a graphical representation of the speaker arrangement Mac OS X applications use when outputing audio, meaning that when an application like iTunes outputs stereo audio, it's this model that's used for the audio output. The speakers are labelled with their configuration left front and right front in the case of simple stereo and are positioned in relation to the listener, who is illustrated with a blue dot see the screenshot on the right. Clicking on the speaker button sends white noise to that speaker until you click it again, and you can set which output on your audio device is used for this speaker in the pop-up menu below that speaker.
In this example, you'd select '7' in the pop-up menu for the left speaker and '8' for the right speaker, and click Apply. All stereo output from basic audio applications that don't specify audio outputs themselves iTunes, Quicktime Player, DVD Player and so on will now take place via outputs seven and eight on your audio hardware. Programs that address specific outputs on Core Audio devices, like Logic, will ignore these settings. The process of setting the assignments for applications that output basic multi-channel audio such as DVD Player and the new version 7 Quicktime Player is the same as for stereo configurations.
In the Configure Speakers tab, click the 'Multi-channel' button and select a multi-channel configuration from the pop-up menu that now appears beside the button. You'll only be able to select multi-channel configurations based on the number of total streams in your audio device, so four speakers will only allow you to set stereo and quadraphonic configurations, for example.
As before, getting it all to work is a question of enabling the required Streams at the top of the sheet, selecting the multi-channel configuration from the pop-up menu, and then assigning the outputs on the speakers in the lower part of the sheet. Apple include many Audio Units with Tiger, most of which are self-descriptively named, as detailed in the following list.
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You'll notice many Audio Units that don't usually get presented in your Audio Units host applications. Audio Units included with Panther are indicated with an asterisk. Audio Units, as the OS X audio plug-in standard, has had a somewhat tumultuous journey compared with other plug-in formats.
A great deal of development was carried out during the early Since few v1 Audio Units plug-ins existed, this didn't create too many problems for developers, and the specification settled down during Plug-ins that failed were set to one side, requiring manual user activation to bring them back into the application again. Although this created a few problems for users in the interim, overall it was a good move, and encouraged the development of 'fully legal' Audio Units plug-ins to improve overall system stability. While many audio plug-in formats were created for specific purposes, such as to process incoming audio to create an effect, the Audio Units format was created to be broad container for a variety of different audio tools.
There were actually seven different types of Audio Units in the specification released with Panther, and there are nine in Tiger. The original seven types are: Effect one of the most common types, this is a standard process that takes an incoming audio signal and creates an outgoing audio signal , Music Device the other common type, which is used to implement software instruments , Music Effect which is similar to Effect, but allows a MIDI input for controlling the effect's parameters , Output which can send an incoming audio signal to an output stream on a Core Audio Device or to a file , Format Converter to implement a utility that converts audio in one format into another, such as a sample-rate converter , and the Mixer and Panner types, which are fairly self-explanatory.
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A full list of the new Audio Units plug-ins that ship with Tiger can be found in the box opposite, and Tiger also adds two new Audio Units types. There's Offline Effect, for creating effects that work on an off-line audio stream, such as when processing files, and there's Generator, which generates an audio output, but doesn't require an audio or MIDI input to do so, like a test-tone signal generator.
In order to use these Audio Units, applications need to be written to support these new types. However, as you might expect, Apple's own applications, Garage Band and Logic, in their latest 2. Basically, audio passes through the AUNetSend plug-in, which can be used as an insert effect, for example, and while this plug-in carries out no processing on the actual audio signal, it does pass any incoming audio to a connected instance of AUNetReceive running within any Audio Units-compatible application on the network.
However, you don't have to have a network of Macs for these Audio Units to be useful, as you can also send audio from AUNetSend to AUNetReceive with both plug-ins running under the same application on the same computer. To set up AUNetSend, you simply add it as an insert effect to an audio channel you want to transmit over the network.
All you need to do now is open an instance of AUNetReceive on another computer on the network, or the same computer — but remember that you need a host application compatible with Audio Units Generator plug-ins to do this. Tiger introduces a new file format for storing audio data known as CAF Core Audio Format , which is a bit file format capable of storing 'a thousand channels of audio for a thousand years in a single file' according to Apple, in both uncompressed and compressed formats such as Apple Lossless and AAC.
Quicktime 7 offers support for CAF files, although there is no support in any other application, including Apple's own offerings, at the time of writing. While little information is available yet as to the specifics of this new audio file format, CAF is pretty similar to other audio file formats, such as the Broadcast Wave file format, and consists of a series of data chunks, including one chunk that stores the actual audio data, and another that describes the format of the audio, such as the sample rate, bit depth, number of channels, and other settings associated with streaming the file across a network.
Other chunks specify other characteristics concerning the audio stored in the file, such as an overview, so that the data for displaying the audio on screen is stored with the audio rather than it having to be created from scratch when the file is opened in multiple applications. Simple, but good on the road if you have a laptop or if you don't want to shell out the bucks for a MIDI keyboard.
It can watch both incoming and outgoing MIDI streams, and can filter them by message type and channel. Good for seeing what's really going on.